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Risks and Protective Factors of Abuse and Violence across the Lifespan and Policy Responses
Attach Author Jeong-Hee Ryu Joo-Yeon Lee Date 2018/02/07

A series of recent media reports about the tragic death of children from severe child abuse has dramatically increased public attention and concern about child abuse in South Korea. The wide public discourse sparked by these vivid instances is also evolving into a discourse on the need to better protect the weak and vulnerable, urging policymakers to devise fundamental and effective measures to stem the vicious cycle of abuse. Although policymakers have introduced new measures to support victims of abuse and violence, strengthen the punishment for offenders and raise public awareness, many of these measures address the problem in an ex post manner. In order to come up with a priori abuse prevention measures, it is necessary first to identify the risk factors and determine the steps necessary to protect people against them. The existing literature on abuse and violence concurs that socioeconomic vulnerabilities often serve as decisive factors. Economic inequality, alcoholism, a lack of proper parenting, and social isolation are closely correlated to child abuse and school and domestic violence. Most of these studies, however, address abuse and violence in a fragmented manner as they concern only specific groups, such as children, women, and the Research Background & << Purpose 4 Risk and Protective Factors of Abuse and Violence Across the Lifespan and Policy Responses elderly. No previous study has looked into a comprehensive range of risk and protective factors involved in abuse that occurs repeatedly at various stages of an individual’s lifecycle. These factors differ widely depending on the types of abuse and violence involved and are also interrelated (WHO, 2006). It has been quite difficult so far to identify a list of risk and protective factors that apply universally. Abuse and violence can take place repeatedly, with overlapping and interacting factors, at various stages of human development. It is important to approach the major factors repeated across one’s lifecycle from a comprehensive perspective. This study provides a wide-ranging understanding of abuse that affects various groups of people and the risk and protective factors affecting infants and toddlers, children, teenagers, adults, and seniors, with a view to identifying more effective policy responses to prevent it and stop it when it occurs.


Ⅰ. Research Background & Purpose 1
Ⅱ. Research Content & Method 5
1. Research Content 7
2. Research Method 8
Ⅲ. Theoretical Background 13
1. Social Learning Theory 16
2. Intersectionality Theory 19
Ⅳ. Results 23
1. Bibliometrics 25
2. Expert Survey 51
V. Policy Implications 81
1. Personal Level: Enhance Access to Mental Health Services 83
2. Family Level: Adopt a Family-Centered Approach to Prevention and Treatment 84
3. Legal-Institutional Level: Enhance Public Involvement in the Systems of Protection against Abuse and their Continuity 86
4. Social Level: Raise Public Awareness on the Actual Situation of Abuse 87
Bibliography 93 

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