Objectives: This study investigated horizontal dental inequalities and the impact of rurality and insurance types on dental care utilization among Korean patients, age 18 and older. Methods: The study employed the 1998 Korea National Health Survey. Horizontal inequalities were measured by comparing the amount of dental visits with the proportion of dental care given for equal need. Zero-inflated negative binomial estimation was applied to estimate the quantities of dental visits after adjusting for dental need. Results and Conclusion: Horizontal inequality in dental utilization was found to favor the wealthy (horizontal inequality index, HIwv = 0.0536, p ＜ 0.05). Due to poorer health and demographic features, rural residents visited dental professionals less often than their urban counterparts (mean dental visits; 0.94 vs. 1.11), although their dental needs were almost equal. Regional health insurance tended to ameliorate inequalities in dental utilization (HIwv = 0.0079, p =0.80), particularly in urban areas (HIwv = - 0.0140, p = 0.73), while employment-based health plans worsened dental inequality (HIwv = 0.0850, p ＜ 0.05). These findings suggest that more attention needs to be paid to the allocation of dental resources and that there needs to be improved access to dental care for low income, rural residents.